White Balance is used to create a photo with colors that are accurate to reality. Different sources of light will alter the color of the image. A variety of different tones are created by different lighting such as fluorescent lighting which gives a bluish tone to the photo and tungsten lights gives a yellow tone. When adjusting, warm colors would need to be colder and cold colors would need to be warmer. All cameras have different ways of adjusting, so you’ll need to know the fundamentals of your camera efficiently. There are multiple white balance settings which are listed below. You can alter the white balance by simply showing the camera what the color white is and then taking the photo, which will add contrast to the photo. In conclusion, different lightings require different white balances to adjust for the photo, and it is best choose the specific white balance setting instead of using auto.
Auto: The camera guesses on a shot by shot basis.
Tungsten: Usually used for indoors, and cools down the colors of the photo.
Fluorescent: Compensates for cool lighting and makes the colors warmer in the photo.
Daylight Sunny: Rarely seen in cameras since it’s basically just normal settings.
Cloudy: Slightly warms up the photo due to the dim colors.
Flash: Warms up the photo due to the use of flash.
Shade: Cooler colors are more apparent in shade so the camera warms up the photo.
There’s a variety of techniques for action and motion, whether that be sharp or blurry. First of all, you need to have a fast shutter speed in order to capture sharper photos. The faster the subject, the faster the shutter speed should be. Using a lower shutter speed allows abstract techniques, but may require a tripod so the whole picture isn’t blurry. Due to the slow and fast shutter speeds you will use, you must compensate to prevent the picture from being too bright or too dark.; The faster the shutter speed, the darker your picture will be, the slower the shutter speed, the lighter your picture will be. In the picture above, the photographer utilizes a slow shutter speed to capture the running river which makes it look silky and foggy. Slowing the shutter speed down and moving the camera with the subject can create a photo where the background is blurry and the subject is sharp. The position that you stand in during a sporting event can also hinder or help your photos, so make sure you find the sweet spot; It’s a good idea to be at a position where the players are coming towards you. Using a 70mm-200mm lens is also helpful, as it brings a better look at the subject.
Depth of field is a specific area of a photo that is clear and sharp. There are two types of depth of fields, shallow and deep. Shallow depth of field consists of a very blurry background with a clear foreground. Deep depth of field consists of everything in the photo being sharp and clear. Two aspects of the camera contribute what type of depth of field you’ll get which are the focal length and aperture. Obtaining a long focal length with a wide aperture will provide you with a shallow depth of field while a short focal length and small aperture will provide you with deep depth of field.
RAW: Raw files are exactly what they are, raw. The images are the most highest quality in can be and are lossless DNG (Digital Negative): DNG is similar to RAW, however the image data is in a compatible, universal format. Their size is also 15-20% smaller without the loss of quality.
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format): TIFF is known for its flexibility with editing. Since it retains its information in layers, it makes it compatible with popular programs such as Photoshop, Lightroom, Illustrator, etc. Which makes it popular among graphic artists, photographers, and publishers. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format): GIF’s are unique. It consists of a moving image but aren’t considered videos, which makes it great for graphics and visuals with animations. They are usually short and controversial due to its two different pronunciations, “jif” and “gif.” PNG: PNG’s are usually known for their transparency options. It is popular amongst photo editors and graphic designers due to this feature, and is also easy to be shared on the web. JPEG: JPEG’s are the most common file format in digital cameras. It contains an algorithm that removes the tiniest details in order to save space while still presenting a high quality image.